Seven former Pittsburgh Pirates players born on this date.
Nick Tropeano, pitcher for the 2020 Pirates. He was a fifth round draft pick in 2011 out of Stony Brook University by the Houston Astros. He debuted in short-season ball in the New York-Penn League with Tri-City, posting a 2.36 ERA in 12 starts, with 63 strikeouts in 53.1 innings. In 2012, Tropeano split the season between Low-A Lexington of the South Atlantic League and High-A Lancaster of the California League, combining to go 12-7, 3.02 in 158 innings, with 166 strikeouts. He had similar results at each level, doing slightly better at the lower level. He went to the Arizona Fall League after the season and had a 3.00 ERA in 15 innings. He spent 2013 in Double-A, playing for Corpus Christi of the Texas League, where he posted a 7-10, 4.11 record in 133.2 innings, with 130 strikeouts. Tropeano spent 2014 in Triple-A with Oklahoma City of the Pacific Coast League, where he had a 9-5, 3.03 record in 124.2 innings, with 120 strikeouts and an 0.99 WHIP. He was a September call-up to the Astros, going 1-3, 4.57 in 21.2 innings over four starts. Shortly after the season ended, he was traded to the Los Angeles Angels, where he stayed until he reached free agency after the 2019 season. Tropeano made seven starts and a relief appearance with the 2015 Angels, going 3-2, 3.86 in 37.2 innings, with 38 strikeouts. He made 16 starts with Salt Lake City of the Pacific Coast League that year, going 3-6, 4.81 in 88 innings, with 96 strikeouts.
Tropeano went 3-2, 3.56 in 13 starts for the Angels in 2016, striking out 68 batters in 68.1 innings. In August of that season, he had Tommy John surgery, which cost him all of 2017. He returned in 2018 to make 14 starts at the big league level after three rehab starts in the minors. He went 5-6, 4.74 in 76 innings for the Angels that year. In 2019, Tropeano spent most of the year with Salt Lake City, going 4-6, 5.87 in 79.2 innings, with 85 strikeouts. He had a 9.88 ERA in his limited big league work, throwing 13.2 innings over one start and two relief appearances. He signed with the New York Yankees as a free agent in February of 2020, but he never pitched for them due to the shortened season. The Pirates picked him up on waivers and he made seven appearances that season, allowing two runs in 15.2 innings, with 19 strikeouts. Tropeano was put on waivers in October, where he was picked up by the New York Mets. He moved around a lot in 2021, playing for the Mets and San Francisco Giants in the majors, and the Mets, Giants and Los Angeles Dodgers in Triple-A. His big league time amounted to two earned runs over eight innings in five relief appearances. Tropeano signed with the Texas Rangers as a minor league free agent and spent two months with Round Rock of the Pacific Coast League before being released. He was unsigned at the time of this writing. Through mid-August of 2022, he has a 14-14, 4.22 big league record in 241 innings, with 39 starts and 15 relief appearances.
Jordy Mercer, shortstop for the 2012-18 Pirates. He was a third round pick of the Pirates in the 2008 draft out of Oklahoma State. Three years earlier, he was drafted out of high school by the Los Angeles Dodgers in the 26th round. He had a very brief stop in the short-season New York-Penn League with State College (six games) before moving up to Low-A Hickory of the South Atlantic League in 2008, where he hit .250 with 21 runs, seven doubles, four homers and 18 RBIs in 50 games. In 2009, he moved up to Lynchburg of the High-A Carolina League and hit .255 with 64 runs, 50 extra-base hits (36 doubles), 83 RBIs and a .713 OPS in 131 games. He was in Double-A Altoona of the Eastern League for the 2010 season, hitting .282 with 67 runs, 31 doubles, three homers, 65 RBIs and a .702 OPS in 126 games. Mercer went to the Arizona Fall League after the season and hit .267 with a homer and 13 RBIs in 20 games. In 2011, he split the year between Altoona and Triple-A Indianapolis of the International League, posting much better results at the lower level. He combined to hit .255 with 79 runs, 30 doubles, 19 homers, 69 RBIs and a .757 OPS in 132 games. He started 2012 in Indianapolis and hit .287/.357/.421 with 14 doubles, four homers and 27 RBIs in 56 games. Mercer made it to the majors in late May of 2012 and was used mostly as a utility fielder during his first two seasons. He hit .210/.265/.371 in 68 plate appearances over 42 games for the 2012 Pirates. During the 2013 season, which included a 26-game stint back in Indianapolis, he batted .285 for the Pirates, with 33 runs, 32 extra-base hits and 27 RBIs in 103 games. His .772 OPS that season was the best of his career.
Mercer took over shortstop full-time in 2014 and stayed there for five full years before reaching free agency. Mercer’s best season at the plate came in 2013, but his best overall season came in 2014, thanks in part to a career best 1.2 dWAR. He hit .255 with 27 doubles, 12 homers, 55 RBIs and 56 runs scored in 149 games that season, compiling a .693 OPS. He missed some time due to a knee injury in 2015, and finished the year hitting .244 with 34 runs, 21 doubles, three homers and 34 RBIs in 116 games. He set career highs with runs (66), hits (133), RBIs (59) and walks (51) in 2016, while batting .256/.328/.374 in 149 games. Mercer’s 14 homers in 2017 stands as his career best. That year he batted .255 with 52 runs, 24 doubles, 58 RBIs, 51 walks and a .733 OPS in 145 games. In his final season in Pittsburgh (2018), he hit .251, with a career high 29 doubles, to go along with 43 runs, six homers and 39 RBIs, while playing 117 games.
Mercer signed with the Detroit Tigers as a free agent during the winter of 2018-19. He batted .270 with 24 runs, 16 doubles, nine homers, 22 RBIs and a .748 OPS in 74 games in 2019, playing all four infield spots. He suffered a right quad strain in April and re-injured it in May, costing him more than two months that season. He re-signed with the Tigers for 2020, though he moved on to the New York Yankees after just three games. He played just nine games total during the shortened 2020 season, hitting .200/.273/.200 in 22 plate appearances. Mercer then signed with the Washington Nationals as a free agent in 2021. He batted .267 with 13 runs, seven doubles, two homers and nine RBIs in 46 games, seeing most of his playing time at second base and third base. He had three separate stints on the Injured List that season. He retired after the 2021 season, ending his ten-year career in the majors. With the Pirates, Mercer was a .256/.316/.383 hitter in 821 games, with 55 homers and 227 RBIs. He was a career .256 hitter, with 330 runs, 173 doubles, 66 homers and 308 RBIs in 950 games.
Mike Maddux, pitcher for the 1995 Pirates. He is the brother of Hall of Fame pitcher Greg Maddux and often gets lost in his shadow, but Mike Maddux ended up playing 15 seasons in the majors, pitching a total of 472 games split between nine different teams. Maddux was drafted out of high school in 1979 by the Cincinnati Reds, but chose not to sign until 1982, when he was selected in the fifth round by the Philadelphia Phillies out of UTEP. He went to short-season ball his first season, where he had a 3.99 ERA in 65.1 innings for Bend of the Northwest League. The next season he split the year between 13 starts with Spartanburg of the Class-A South Atlantic League, 14 starts for Peninsula of the Class-A Carolina League (considered to be Advanced-A), and one start for Double-A Reading of the Eastern League. He had his best success that year with Peninsula, posting a 3.62 ERA in 99.1 innings. Between all three stops, he went 12-10, 4.48 in 186.2 innings, with 165 strikeouts. Maddux split the 1984 season between Reading and Triple-A Portland of the Pacific Coast League, with poor results at each level. He combined to go 5-16, 5.27, with 99 strikeouts in 160.2 innings. The entire 1985 season was spent in Portland, with similar numbers to the previous year, going 9-12, 5.31, with 96 strikeouts in 166 innings. In 1986, he showed a remarkable improvement with Portland, going 5-2, 2.36 in 84 innings over 12 starts, which led to his first shot in the big leagues.
Maddux made his Major League debut in June of 1986 as a starting pitcher, though he made his mark in the majors as a reliever. He went 3-7, 5.42 in 78 innings over 16 starts for the 1986 Phillies. He didn’t spend his first full season in the majors until 1991. Maddux split the 1986-89 seasons with the Phillies between Triple-A and the majors. He had a 2.65 ERA in 17 innings with the 1987 Phillies, making two starts and five relief appearances. With Maine of the International League that season, he had a 4.35 ERA and 71 strikeouts in 103.1 innings. In 1988, he had a 3.76 ERA in 88.2 innings over 11 starts and 14 relief outings for the Phillies, while pitching just 23.2 innings with Maine. That was followed by a 1-5, 5.15 record in 43.2 innings in 1989. Maddux ended up pitching 123 innings in Triple-A that year with Scranton/Wilkes-Barre of the International League. He was released by the Phillies in November of 1989 and signed a month later with the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Maddux spent most of the 1990 season in Triple-A Albuquerque of the Pacific Coast League, where he went 8-5, 4.25 in 108 innings. He had a 6.53 ERA in 20.2 innings with the Dodgers that year, making two starts and nine relief appearances. He was let go at the end of the season and signed with the San Diego Padres in late March of 1991. That season he ended up going 7-2, 2.46, with five saves in 98.2 innings over 64 outings (one start). He had similar success in relief in 1992 with the Padres, posting a 2.37 ERA in 79.2 innings over 50 games (one start), once again picking up five saves. Maddux was traded to the New York Mets in December of 1992. In 1993, he had a 3-8, 3.60 record in 75 innings over 58 relief appearances, once again picking up five saves for a third straight season. He struggled during the strike-shortened 1994 season, posting a 5.11 ERA in 44 innings over 27 appearances.
Maddux signed with the Pirates in April of 1995 as a free agent. His stay with the Pirates was short, amounting to eight relief outings, with a 9.00 ERA in nine innings. He was released in mid-May (the season didn’t start until late April that year), then signed two weeks later with the Boston Red Sox. Maddux had a 3.61 ERA in 89.2 innings over 36 appearances in Boston in 1995. He ended up setting his career high with 69 strikeouts that season, while tying his high with 98.2 innings pitched. He stayed with the Red Sox in 1996 and went 3-2, 4.48 in 64.1 innings over seven starts and 16 relief appearances. His big league time in 1997 was limited to a 10.13 ERA in 10.2 innings in 1997 with the Seattle Mariners. He made four Triple-A starts that season, including three as a member of the Padres organization. Maddux rebounded in 1998 with the Montreal Expos, posting a 3-4, 3.72 record in 55.2 innings over 51 appearances. He was with the Expos to start the 1999 season, but he was released after he allowed five runs over five innings. He was signed quickly by the Los Angeles Dodgers, where he had a 3.29 ERA in 54.2 innings over 49 outings. Maddux stayed around until 2000, ending his playing days with the Houston Astros, where he had a 6.26 ERA in 27.1 innings over 21 games. He had a career record of 39-37, 4.05 over 861.2 innings, with 20 saves in 472 games (48 starts). He has served as a pitching coach since 2002, first in the minors, then for six seasons with the Brewers (2003-08), seven years for the Texas Rangers (2009-15), two years with the Washington Nationals (2016-17) and the last five years with the St Louis Cardinals.
Mike Edwards, second baseman for the 1977 Pirates. He was a seventh round draft pick of the Pirates in 1974 out of the University of California. He finally signed a contract after being drafted three other times, twice by the California Angels and once by the Montreal Expos. The Angels took him out of high school in the 18th round in June of 1970. They picked him again in the fourth round during the January 1971 draft. The Expos selected Edwards in the fifth round in 1972. He went to the New York-Penn League after signing with the Pirates and hit .313 in 69 games, with 43 runs, 21 extra-base hits, 25 steals and a .798 OPS for Niagara Falls. In 1975, he split the season between Double-A Shreveport of the Texas League and Triple-A Charleston of the International League, combining to hit .298 with 68 runs, 40 extra-base hits, 56 RBIs and 30 steals in 124 games. He had a .777 OPS in 93 games with Shreveport, and a .683 OPS in 31 games for Charleston.
Edwards also split the 1976 season between Double-A and Triple-A. He had an .832 OPS in 53 games with Shreveport, but he hit just .206 with eight extra-base hits and six walks in 62 games with Charleston, leading to a .506 OPS. His first full year at Triple-A was much more successful, as the Pirates moved their affiliate to Columbus of the International League in 1977. Edwards hit .296 that year in 133 games, with 77 runs scored, 24 extra-base hits, 61 RBIs and he stole 62 bases. His previous stolen base high was 30 during his first three years. The Pirates made him a September call-up, getting him into seven games. He went hitless in six at-bats. Just before the 1978 season started, he was sent to the Oakland A’s as the player to be named later in a deal to reacquire Manny Sanguillen.
Edwards saw plenty of playing time with Oakland over the next two season, playing a combined 264 games, with most of his time spent at second base. He hit .273 over 142 games in 1978,with 48 runs, 19 extra-base hits (16 doubles), 23 RBIs, 21 steals and a .632 OPS. After batting .233/.263/.280 in 122 games in 1979, while leading all American League second basemen in errors for a second consecutive year, he saw very limited time during the 1980 season. He played just 46 games and had 63 plate appearances all year, putting up a .237/.250/.237 slash line, finishing with one walk and no extra-base hits. He was released by the A’s following the season and didn’t play the next year. He played in the Mexican League in 1982, then on to Japan for one season, before finishing his career in 1984 back in Mexico. He had an impressive final season of pro ball, putting up a .442 average in 113 games for Monterrey. He batted .250 with 94 runs scored, 28 doubles, two homers, 49 RBIs and 38 steals (in 68 attempts) in 317 big league games. Edwards had a younger brother named Dave Edwards, who played five seasons in the majors, spending time with the Minnesota Twins and San Diego Padres. He also had a twin brother named Marshall, who spent three seasons (1981-83) with the Milwaukee Brewers. Marshall batted and threw lefty, while Mike did both from the right side. The Pirates also had a Mike Edwards (of no relation) on their 2006 team.
Charlie Engle, infielder for the 1930 Pirates. He broke into pro ball by reaching the majors in his first season, playing for the Philadelphia Athletics for one game as a defensive replacement in September of 1925 at 21 years old. He began the year with Greensboro of the Class-C Piedmont League, where he hit .246 in 125 games, with 32 extra-base hits. Engle hit .285 in 101 games with Greensboro in 1926, collecting 29 extra-base hits. He got a slightly bigger chance with the A’s that year, playing 19 games from mid-June through late July. He hit .105 with two singles in 19 at-bats, but he managed to walk ten times and he was hit by a pitch once, which resulted in the odd .105/.433/.105 slash line. He also scored seven runs. Engle then spent the next three seasons playing for Memphis of the Class-A Southern Association, serving as the team’s everyday shortstop. He batted .260 with 22 extra-base hits in 155 games in 1927. In 1928, he had a .271 average, with 24 extra-base hits in 154 games. The Pirates took him in the October 1929 Rule 5 draft after he hit .302 with 21 doubles and six triples in 141 games that season for Memphis.
Engle was the Pirates starting third baseman to begin the 1930 season, then after not playing for 11 days in late May, he took over at shortstop for a month and a half. After being benched again, he started playing second base, seeing sporadic playing time there over the last two months. Most of his playing time came as a replacement for an injured player. Engle finished the season hitting .264 with 34 runs, ten doubles, one triple, 15 RBIs, 22 walks and a .654 OPS. On October 28, 1930, he was released outright to Fort Worth of the Class-A Texas League, which marked the end of his big league career. He returned to the minors in 1931 and ended up playing 11 more years before the war started, with most of that time spent in the Texas League, where he saw action with four different teams. Engle struggled at the plate in his return to the minors, hitting .231 with 20 extra-base hits in 142 games for Fort Worth in 1931. The next season he hit .248 with 25 doubles and three triples. The 1933 season was split between Fort Worth and San Antonio. He batted .266 in 150 games, with 22 doubles and three triples. In 1934, he .249 with 31 extra-base hits in 153 games for San Antonio. He homered twice that year, his first home runs at any level since he hit a career high of three in 1928.
Engle batted .251 in 159 games with San Antonio in 1935, connecting on 14 doubles and five triples. In 1936, he returned to Fort Worth, where he hit .236 in 146 games, with 48 runs, 22 doubles, five triples, 60 RBIs and 72 walks. In 1937, he played for Galveston of the Texas League and hit .231 with 18 doubles and two homers in 153 games. He played 62 games for Tulsa of the Texas League in 1938, hitting .221 with seven extra-base hits. In 1939, he dropped down three levels to Class-D ball, spending most of the season with Rayne of the Evangeline League, where he batted .271 with 18 extra-base hits in 94 games. He also played five games with Abilene/Borger of the West Texas-New Mexico League. He remained in that league for the next two seasons with Lubbock, where he hit .340 in 64 games in 1940 and .345 in 44 games in 1941. He then ran a team called the Charlie Engle All-Stars for a time, returning to pro ball once the war was over. He was a player/manager in 1946, then managed another three seasons in the minors afterwards. While his big league career amounted to just 87 games, he played over 1,800 minor league games.
Eddie Mulligan, infielder for the 1928 Pirates. He played five seasons in the majors, spread out over a 13-year time period. His pro career spanned 25 years, beginning in 1914 as a teenager. That first year he batted .268 in 82 games for an Ottumwa franchise in the Class-D Central Association that moved two times during the season. He also saw brief time two levels higher with Davenport of the Class-B Three-I League. He was with Davenport in 1915 as well, hitting .279 with 33 extra-base hits in 124 games. The Chicago Cubs brought Mulligan to the majors at the end of the 1915 season. He had a strong debut, hitting .364 in 11 games, with an .891 OPS. In 1916, he had a terrible time trying to keep up with the fast pace of Major League ball. He hit .153/.200/.212 in 58 games, with 40 errors at shortstop, before the Cubs gave up on him. He was traded to Kansas City of the Double-A American Association (highest level of the minors at the time), where he spent the rest of the 1916 season and most of 1917. Mulligan hit .238 with ten doubles in 55 games to finish out the 1916 season. With Kansas City in 1917, he batted .253 with 12 extra-base hits in 100 games. He also played 20 games that season with Mobile of the Class-A Southern Association before entering the Army during WWI. He did not play during the 1918 season.
When Mulligan returned in 1919, he played for Salt Lake City of the Double-A Pacific Coast League for two seasons, prior to joining the Chicago White Sox. Mulligan hit .269 with 33 extra-base hits in 137 games in 1919. That was followed up by a .299 average and 52 extra-base hits in 179 games in 1920, which earned him a spot with Chicago. The 1921 season was the best of his Major League career. He hit .251 with 82 runs scored, 21 doubles,12 triples, 45 RBIs and a .623 OPS in 151 games for the White Sox, getting 150 starts at third base. He was the replacement that season for Buck Weaver, one of the eight players suspended for throwing the 1919 World Series (Black Sox scandal). Mulligan was the starting third baseman for most of the 1922 season as well, hitting .234 in 103 games, with 39 runs, 14 doubles, eight triples, 31 RBIs and a .593 OPS.
Mulligan returned to the minors in 1923, spending the next five seasons playing for the San Francisco Seals of the PCL, where he played an average of 175 games per year. He batted .329 with 41 extra-base hits in 155 games during the 1923 season. He then followed it up with a .306 average, 51 doubles and 13 homers in 199 games in 1924. His average slipped to .286 in 1925, but it came with 63 extra-base hits in 180 games. His production really dropped off in 1926, when he batted .263 with 37 extra-base hits and a .329 slugging percentage in 182 games. Mulligan regained a bit of his offense in 1927, hitting .274 with 46 doubles in 170 games, though he had just one triple and six homers, leading to a .373 slugging percentage. The Pirates sent infielder Hal Rhyne back to the Seals in February of 1928. Then on March 18, 1928, they picked up Mulligan. It was said to be two separate deals, but it was believed at the time that both players were purchased for $10,000, and the deals off-set each other.
Mulligan saw very little time with the Pirates, especially after May. After starting a few games at second base in mid-May, he replaced a sick Pie Traynor for a few games at the end of the month. Once the calendar hit June though, he began every game on the bench and never played in the field again all season. He made eight appearances as a pinch-hitter and six as a pinch-runner, finishing with a .233 average and four runs scored in 27 games, getting a total of 50 plate appearances. Mulligan returned to the PCL in 1929, where he spent the next ten seasons before ending his career in 1939 as a player/manager for the Salt Lake City Bees of the Class-C Pioneer League. Despite spending five seasons with San Francisco in the PCL, he basically played everywhere except San Francisco when he returned, seeing time with Mission, Seattle, Portland, San Diego and Oakland. In his first year back in the league, he hit .279 with 42 extra-base hits in 181 games with Mission. In 1930, he played 201 games, hitting .300 with 43 extra-base hits and 248 hits total. Mulligan played just 94 games in 1931, hitting .280 with 23 extra-base hits. He split the 1932 season between Mission, Portland and Seattle, batting .295 with 28 extra-base hits in 139 games.
Mulligan hit .294 with 40 extra-base hits (33 doubles) in 177 games with Portland in 1933. He followed that up with a .269 average, 32 doubles and five triples in 184 games for Oakland in 1934. From that point on, his playing time diminished. He split 1935 between Hollywood and Mission, getting into a total of 82 games. The 1936-38 seasons saw him play a total of 82 games for San Diego, mostly seeing time off of the bench. His final season with Salt Lake City consisted of just three games played. He is a member of the PCL Hall of Fame and was an accomplished soccer player as a youth, playing as a pro before he baseball career began. His big league career amounted to a .232 average with 41 doubles, 24 triples, one homer, 88 RBIs and 143 runs scored in 350 games.
Dave Wright, pitcher for the Pirates on July 22, 1895. Wright joined the Pirates on July 12, 1895 on a trial basis. It was said that he was in Pittsburgh that day and given a tryout by Pirates manager Connie Mack, who said that the young pitcher made a favorable impression and he would be tried out by the team soon. The next day the Pirates purchased his release from the Twin City Hustlers of the Interstate League and signed him to a contract. On July 15th, just three days later, the Pirates played an exhibition game against Wheeling of the Interstate League. On the mound for the first time wearing a Pirates uniform was 19-year-old Dave Wright, who was booed unmercifully by the Wheeling fans because he beat their team earlier in the year while playing for the Twin City. The Pirates won 9-6 and the scouting report on Wright was that he had good size and an above average curveball with good control. It was also said that he had much to learn, but he was young and willing to listen and put in the work. The Pirates had a five-day break in the National League schedule in mid-July 1895, but they didn’t take time off, they played exhibition games instead to make extra money. Wright got another chance to pitch in front of the Pirates, before he pitched in a game that counted. At that same time, Pittsburgh also picked up pitcher Brownie Foreman, giving both new hurlers a trial.
There were calls from the Pittsburgh crowd for Wright to make his first appearance on July 20th, after the Pirates went up big early on the Philadelphia Phillies. Star pitcher Pink Hawley ended up finishing that game he started and Wright would have to wait two more days before his big league debut. Hawley ended up starting the next game (after an off-day) and he got hit hard, going seven innings against the Baltimore Orioles before he was pulled in favor of Wright. Making his Major League debut against a team right in the middle of their three-year run of NL pennants, he got hit around hard, giving up six runs in his first inning. He pitched a scoreless ninth, but the damage was done. His ERA with the Pirates forever stands at 27.00 in his one game.
Wright made it back to the majors two years later, pitching one game for the Chicago Colts (Cubs). He faced the Pirates in Pittsburgh and gave up 14 runs on 17 hits and two walks in seven innings. You may wonder why manager Cap Anson would leave him in so long for such a beating and the answer is simple, to pick up the 15-14 win in the shortened game. Wright actually had a 15-5 lead after five and a half innings, allowing five runs in the six and four in the seventh before the game was ended early. He never played in the majors again, retiring after a poor showing during the 1898 season in the minors splits between Columbus and Minneapolis of the Class-A Western League, which was the highest level of the minors at the time. Columbus sold him to Minneapolis in late May along with outfielder Dan Lally, who was also a former Pirates player. Wright’s only other minor league time on record was in 1895, both before and after his time with the Pirates. He was loaned to New Castle of the Iron and Oil League in late July of 1895, with Pirates manager Connie Mack saying at the time that he believed that Wright would be a great pitcher by 1896. On September 8th it was announced that the Pirates released Wright. The local Pittsburgh papers noted that he was back playing for Twin City of the Interstate League later that month.
Wright attended a Pirates game in May of 1897 and said that he was out of baseball, but might pitch for a Western League team. In July he was pitching semi-pro ball in the Pittsburgh area for a team from Burgettstown, Pa., which is how his trial came along with Chicago. It was said that he was Burgettstown’s pitcher (as in their only pitcher) and the team had a 17-4 record. Wright was found playing semi-pro ball in 1900 with a team called R.E. McCarty in Pennsylvania. It appears that he played semi-pro ball off and on for quite some time, as he could be found playing in Ohio (his home state) in 1904, 1906, 1907, 1908 and 1909 for a few different teams.